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As science has become more mathematical and abstract it has created an opening to reconnect with values and meaning. For the ultimate content of mathematics is the empty set or nothing at all. Mathematics describes only structure or how complex entities are constructed out of simpler ones. The empty set is the only primitive object not constructed as a set of simpler objects.

This high level of abstraction forces all assumptions about structure to be explicit. There are no inherent properties. There are only properties explicitly constructed with the relationship of set membership. Making all assumptions explicit avoids attributing logical necessity to implicit assumptions such as the parallel postulate in Euclidean Geometry. But reducing everything to structure makes it clear that something profoundly important is missing from our mathematically based scientific understanding. In fact everything with an intrinsic nature or ultimate content is missing.

For these abstractions are explicitly free of meaning and value. This contrasts with older metaphysics such as the one based on earth, air, fire and water. These each had an inherent nature and, through that nature, gave meaning and value to the objects that were constructed from them.

PDF version
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Overview **Previous:** Overview **Contents**

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